'/> Amazing Animals: August 2012

Friday, August 31, 2012

The World’s Most Beautiful and Colorful Monkeys

Here is a list of 10 of the world’s most beautiful and colorful monkeys.

You might not agree with the choices, but certainly these monkeys deserve their place in the list of 10 of the most beautiful and colorful monkeys on planet Earth. Scroll down and find out who made it to the list.

Golden Snub-nosed Monkey

photo link

The beautiful Golden Snub-nosed monkey (Rhinopithecus roxellana) lives in a large troop in the mountains of China. It prefers temperate forests at elevations of 1,500-3,400 m. Known for a wide range of vocalizations, it spends almost 95 % of its time in trees. They normally live in groups ranging in size from 5-10 individuals into bands that can top 400 animals. Depending on the season, Golden Snub-nosed Monkeys feed on tree leaves, buds, bark, fruits or seeds, and flower.

As its name suggests, Golden Snub-nosed monkey has a flattened nose and set back from the muzzle. Its body color ranges from yellowish-red to more brightly orange-red. Also, it has blackish-grey shoulders, crown, back, and tail. The head and upperparts are more brownish black. Adults measure 66-76 cm in body length with a tail around 56-72 cm and weigh about 16.4 kg. Males are larger than females. The golden snub-nosed monkey is classified as endangered on the IUCN red list of threatened species.

Javan Lutung

photo link

The Javan lutung (Trachypithecus auratus) also called Javan langur or Ebony Leaf Monkey is any of two species of small monkey endemic to the island of Java, Indonesia. This primate is found in the interior and secondary areas of rainforests. Like other langurs, it owns a noticeably long tail measuring up to 98 cm long. The species' body is only about 55 cm long. Both species are typically black in color. They live in groups of around seven individuals. A diurnal and arboreal primate, the Javan lutung feeds primarily on leaves, flowers, fruits, fruit seeds, flower buds, and occasionally eats insect larvae.

Black-capped Squirrel Monkey

photo link

The Black-capped Squirrel monkey (Saimiri boliviensis), also known as the Bolivian squirrel monkey, is an energetic, social monkey endemic to Bolivia, Brazil and Peru. They live in large groups in the trees. Generally, they have gold or gray fur, black cap, black muzzle, bare eye mask, white ear-tufts, and bright yellow lower arms and feet. This primate has a long tail for balance and warmth. Adults measure around 27 to 32 centimeters in body length and weigh on average around 950 grams. It feeds on seeds, insects, berries and fruits. The Black-headed squirrel monkey is listed as Least Concern.

Golden Lion Tamarin

photo link

The Golden lion tamarin (Leontopithecus rosalia), also known as the golden marmoset, is a bright reddish orange monkey native to the tropical rain forest in Brazil. They live in groups consisting of up to eight members. It got its name from its impressive manes—resembling that of the African lion. Its black face is hairless. Its golden hair covers its small body and tail. Adults measure around 261 mm (10.3 in) and weighs around 620 g (1.4 lb). The golden lion tamarin feeds on fruits, flowers, insects, birds, and small vertebrates. The Golden lion tamarin was listed as Endangered by the IUCN wild population of approximately 1,500 individuals.

Mandrill

photo link

The mandrill (Mandrillus sphinx), the world’s largest species of monkey, found in Congo, southern Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea, and Gabon. They inhabit tropical rainforests living in groups called “hordes”. Mandrills measure about 90 cm (3 ft) tall and weigh around 35 kg (77 lbs). Typically, this shy and reclusive primate sports an olive green or dark grey pelage. It has hairless face, white tuffs, yellow beards, elongated muzzle, red nostrils and lips. Adult males are easily recognized by their bright red-and-blue facial markings. Mandrills are more arboreal and enjoy an omnivorous diet, preferring to eat fruits and insects. These colorful monkeys are threatened.

Zanzibar Red Colobus

photo link

The Zanzibar Red Colobus (Piliocolobus kirkii) also known as “kima punju” which means “poison monkey” in Swahili, is a species of red colobus monkey found in three forests of the Zanzibar archipelago. Its coat ranges from dark red to black, marked with a black stripe on its shoulders and arms. It has a black face accented with laced, long white hair. This beautiful and colorful monkey sports a pink mark on its lips and nose. They are specialized leaf-eaters, but often consume seeds, flowers, and unripe fruit. The species is listed as endangered.

Red-shanked Douc

photo link

The Red-shanked douc (Pygathrix nemaeus), sometimes called the “costumed ape”, is among the most colorful of all primates. This arboreal and diurnal monkey is native to Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos, and China. The species inhabit primary and secondary rainforests, and lowland terrains. It's easily recognizable by its golden face marked by a white ruff. A maroon-red “stockings” runs from its knees to its ankles. It has soft powder blue eyelids, a white tail, black hands and feet. Adult males measure around 61 cm (24 in) in head to body length and weigh about 11 kg (24 lb). They live in groups numbering between 4 to 15 individuals. This colorful monkey communicates using facial expressions. Its diet consists primarily of leaves high in fibers. Conservation status: Endangered.

Gee’s Golden Langur

photo link

Gee’s Golden langur (Trachypithecus geei), is an Old World monkey found mainly in the foothills of the Himalayas, along the Assam-Bhutan border. It inhabits tropical deciduous and moist evergreen forests. It lives in troops numbering to about 8 individuals. This beautiful and colorful monkey sports golden to bright cream fur, impressive black face and a tail that can reach up to 50 centimeters (20 in) long. Gee’s Golden Langur is herbivorous and feeds on seeds, ripe and unripe fruits, leaves, buds, and flowers. The species is listed as Endangered on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.

Sumatran Orangutan

photo link

The Sumatran orangutan (Pongo abelii) is one of the two species of orangutans, the other being the Bornean orangutan, is endemic only on the island of Sumatra, in Indonesia. This beautiful and colorful monkey sleeps in nests in the trees in tropical rainforests. Male orangutan measures 1.5m tall and weigh as much as 120kg. Females are smaller, averaging 90 cm (3.0 ft) and 45 kilograms (99 lb). Both sexes sport coarse, shaggy reddish coat and very long arms. The adult males grow a beard and also grow cheek pads (flanges) and throat pouches. The species are omnivore — feeds mostly on fruits. It also eats leaves, flowers, honey, and other small insects. Conservation status: Critically Endangered.

Patas Monkey

photo link

The Patas monkey (Erythrocebus patas), often called the “the dancing monkey”, is a ground-dwelling monkey found in West Africa to Ethiopia, Kenya, and Tanzania. It inhabits savanna and woodlands. It is the world’s fastest primate than can obtain a ground speed of up to 55 km per hour. Furthermore, this primate walks on its fingers, not on its palm. Adult measures 60 – 88 cm (23.5 – 35 inches) long and weighs 10 – 13 kg (22 – 29 lbs). It sports a reddish brown body fur on their back. The undersides are lightly colored. Adults have dark faces with a white mustache and whiskers. The Patas monkey is omnivore and feeds on fruits, leaves, roots, insects, bird eggs, and small reptiles. The species is classified least concern on the IUCN red list of threatened species.

Friday, August 24, 2012

Colorful and Uniquely-patterned Aquarium Fishes

These marine creatures exhibit some form of symmetry, either radial symmetry or bilateral symmetry or spherical symmetry. Most of them are heavily-colored yet they are still attractive and beautiful.

Foxface Rabbitfish

photo link

The Foxface Rabbitfish (Siganus vulpinus) is a brightly-colored and popular aquarium fish. It inhabits coral reefs of western Pacific Ocean. This captivating marine creature is remarkable for its bright yellow body combined with white and purple color of its head and front portion. During the night, it changes colors into a mottled dark brown. Its original coloration returns upon waking.

It can attain an average length of 23 cm. Please bear in mind that the dorsal, anal and pectoral fins of this fish have venomous spines. Other informal names of this species are Foxface Lo or simply Foxface.

Twospined Angelfish

photo link

The lovely and colorful Twospined Angelfish (Centropyge bispinosa), which is similar in appearance to the golden angelfish, is endemic to Indian and Pacific Ocean. It inhabits lagoons and coral reefs and can grow up to 8 cm in length. It is not recommended for beginners.

Butterfly Tail Gold Fish

photo link

The Butterfly Tail (Carassius auratus) is an awesome-looking Goldfish species with unique physical appearance and is distinguished by the butterfly-shaped caudal fins from top view. It is also called Butterfly Telescope. Other names include Butterfly Tail Telescope, Butterfly Tail Demekin, Top View Telescope and Butterfly Tail Moor.

Blueslash Butterflyfish

photo link

The Bluelashed Butterflyfish (Chaetodon bennetti) is a colorful fish of Indo-Pacific region. It can achieve a length of up to 20 cm and feeds on coral polyps. This bright yellow colored fish with a black patch has also two curved blue lines above the belly. Its vertical black eye stripe is flanked by two blue lines.

Achilles Tang

photo link

Achilles Tang (Acanthurus achilles), also known as Achilles surgeonfish, is a heavily-colored aquarium fish that can attain a length of 25 cm. it is black in color with remarkable orange and white linings along its fins and tail. It can be found in the Pacific Ocean. This fish is not recommended for beginners. It can be included in a tan with Blennies, Gobies and Butterflyfish.

Magnificent Rabbitfish

photo link

The Magnificent Rabbitfish (Siganus magnificus) is a beautiful fish that inhabits the waters of eastern Indian Ocean. It is slowly becoming a popular fish pet. It can attain a length of 24 cm.

Yellow Longnose Butterflyfish

photo link

The Yellow Longnose Butterflyfish (Forcipiger flavissimus) is a heavily-colored Butterflyfish. This long-snouted fish is similar in appearance to a wiliwili leaf. This pretty fish inhabits the waters of Pacific Ocean. It is called Luwiliwilinukunuku╩╗oi╩╗oi in the Hawaiian language.

Raccoon Butterflyfish

photo link

The Raccoon Butterflyfish (Chaetodon lunula) can be found in the 3 major oceans of the world – Indian, Pacific and Atlantic. It can grow up to 20 cm long and can live up to 5 years in captivity. It is also known as the Crescent-masked Butterflyfish or Lunule Butterflyfish.

Eastern Triangle Butterflyfish

photo link

The Eastern Triangle Butterflyfish (Chaetodon baronessa) of Indo-West Pacific region grows to a maximum length of 16 cm. It is remarkable for its unique pattern of alternating cream and grey-brown to purple chevron-shaped bars. The head has 3 dark bars while the eye has one. It feeds exclusively on the polyps of Acropora corals.

Pholidichthys leucotaenia

photo link

The beautifully patterned and colorful Pholidichthys leucotaenia is a marine fish that can be found in the Pacific Ocean. It can attain a length of 34 cm and slowly becoming a popular aquarium fish.

Thursday, August 23, 2012

Fascinating Birds: Extremely Colorful and Cool-looking Birds

Here’s a list of highly unique-looking species of birds.

Some birds are very colorful, some birds have awesome bills and some birds have extra long beaks and long legs. Other birds have magnificent plumage and tail feathers and others are simply pretty and adorable. Still, some birds are creepy and awful looking and some bird species is extremely unique in appearance.

Guianan Cock-of-the-Rock

photo link

The Guianan Cock-of-the-Rock (Rupicola rupicola) is a brightly-colored bird with a unique half-moon crest which is used as a competitive display to attract females. One thing extraordinary about this bird is its coloration; the bill, legs, feathers is all orange. Not only that, even the bird’s skin is also orange.

Great Blue Turaco

photo link

Look at the head of this bird, it’s simply amazing. And take a look at its bill too- it’s simply adorable. This unique looking bird, commonly known as Great Blue Turaco (Corythaeola cristata), is the largest Turaco that can grow up to 75 cm long and can weigh over I kg. This lovely-looking bird is actively hunted for its meat and feathers. The bird can be found in the Democratic Republic of Congo.

Northern Royal Flycatcher

photo link

Although the Northern Royal Flycatcher (Onychorhynchus mexicanus) is just a small bird species, its appearance is striking for its erectile fan-shaped crest. Male and female Royal Flycatcher can be determined by the color of its crest – red for male and orange for female. This pretty and cool-looking bird can be found in Mexico and other Central and South American countries.

Red-crested Turaco

photo link

The Red-crested Turaco (Tauraco erythrolophus) is simply unique and beautiful. Its crest is captivating and its tail looks elegant. This beautiful bird can be found in Angola and nearby African countries. Red-crested Turaco feeds on fruits.

Andean Cock-of-the-Rock

photo link

The Andean Cock-of-the-rock (Rupicola peruvianus) is a unique-looking bird and is the national bird of Peru. The bird, as its name implies, is native to the Andes Mountains in South America. It is unusual in appearance for the large disk-like crest and scarlet or brilliant orange plumage in males while the female is significantly darker and browner.

The male is a good lover, but a very poor father. He’ll do anything to attract the female, but after mating he leaves everything to the female. The female builds the nest, hatch the eggs and take care of the young birds all by herself.

Ross’ Turaco

photo link

Ross’s Turaco (Musophaga rossae) is a cool—looking African bird with bluish-purple color. It can be found in Cameroon, Rwanda, Zambia and other African countries. This lovely bird is a common pet bird, although not as popular as the Violet Turaco. It is also commonly known as Lady Ross’ Turaco.

Tufted Puffin

photo link

The Tufted Puffin (Fratercula cirrhata) is a unique-looking seabird that can be found throughout the North Pacific Ocean. This puffin species is remarkable for its thick red bill and yellow tufts (although it doesn’t look like yellow in the above photo). This medium-sized bird can grow up to 35 cm in length or more and has a wingspan of similar length.

Livingstone’s Turaco

photo link

The Livingstone’s Turaco (Tauraco livingstonii), an African bird with a crest, is perhaps named after the famous David Livingstone. This bird can be found in South Africa, Malawi, Burundi and other African countries.

White-crested Turaco

photo link

The White-crested Turaco (Tauraco leucolophus), a unique and colorful bird of the near-passerine group, is native to Nigeria and Kenya. This blue-colored bird with white crest inhabits riverine forests and woodlands.

Hartlaub’s Turaco

photo link

The Hartlaub’s Turaco (Tauraco hartlaubi) is a colorful bird species of Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania. It is easily recognizable for its black colored crest and for the white spots on its face.

Fischer’s Turaco

photo link

Another colorful and beautiful African bird is the Fischer’s Turaco (Tauraco fischeri). This Turaco bird inhabits tropical and subtropical lowland forests of Kenya, Somalia and Tanzania. This bird, which is threatened by loss of habita, can also be found living in tropical and subtropical arable land and mountains.

White-cheeked Turaco

photo link

This colorful and peculiar-looking turaco species is commonly known as the White-cheeked Turaco (Tauraco leucotis). This African bird that belongs to the Musophagidae family can be found in Ethiopia, Eritrea and Sudan.

Saturday, August 18, 2012

The World's 10 Most Destructive Grasshoppers

Grasshoppers are plant-eating creatures often regarded as pest or destructive creatures. They have been mentioned in the Bible as such and throughout history they were considered as destructive animals due to their ability to destroy large vegetation and plantations in very short period of time.

Although we have negative connotations on these small creatures they are somehow important in our ecosystem. They serve as foods to many species of birds, reptiles and amphibians.

And unknown to some, grasshoppers are important source of foods and nutrients also to humans. Grasshoppers are eaten in the Philippines, Thailand and other Asian countries.

Eastern Lubber Grasshopper

photo link

The Eastern Lubber Grasshopper (Romalea guttata) or simply Lubber Grasshopper is a brightly colored grasshopper endemic to the United States. It is not only remarkable for its unique coloration, but also for its size that can reach nearly 8 cm in length. This lovely looking grasshopper is also colloquially known as a “Graveyard Grasshopper.” When disturbed, this insect emits a dark colored and foul-smelling secretion.

Mountain Grasshopper

photo link

This pretty insect is known as Mountain Grasshopper (Monistria sp.). This particular grasshopper is photographed near Mt Feathertop in Victoria, Australia.

Red-legged Grasshopper

photo link

The Red-legged Grasshopper (Melanoplus femurrubrum) is a notable grasshopper species of Canada, Mexico, and United States. The back of this insect is reddish-brown, its belly is yellow and its hind legs are red, hence its common name.

Common Field Grasshopper

photo link

The Common Field Grasshopper (Chorthippus brunneus) is a remarkable grasshopper species that can be found in Asia, Europe and North Africa. It usually lives in dry and sparse grassland. From summer up to October, this insect is very hairy.

Differential Grasshopper

photo link

The Differential Grasshopper (Melanoplus differentialis) is a notable species of grasshopper of Canada, Mexico and United States. This insect is regarded a pest in most of its range. On the average, it can attain a length of 40 mm. It is brownish or greenish in color, but darken as it grows older.

Miramella irena

photo link

This glossy and beautiful grasshopper is a notable species of grasshopper from Croatia. This particular grasshopper was taken from Istria, Croatia.

Two-striped Grasshopper

photo link

The Two-striped Grasshopper (Melanoplus bivittatus) is a grasshopper species which is considered a pest in Canada and in the United States. It has a pair of pale yellow stripes running along the top of its body from above its eyes to the hind tip of its wings, hence its common name.

Meadow Grasshopper

photo link

The Meadow Grasshopper (Chorthippus parallelus) is a notable grasshopper species of the region between Asia and Europe. It is commonly found in non-arid grasslands and prefers moist vegetation and river valleys. The Meadow Grasshopper on the above photo is photographed in Belgium.

Parapodisma tanzawaensis

photo link

The Parapodisma tanzawaensis is a notable grasshopper species that can be found in Japan. The grasshopper on the above photo was taken at Honshu, Japan.

Plagues of the Desert Locust

photo link

This is the most popular, controversial and the most destructive grasshopper in the world!

Plagues of the Desert Locusts (Schistocerca gregaria) are considered pest in Africa, Middle East and Asia. These creatures have threatened agricultural production in these areas for hundreds of years now. These destructive and voracious insects have affected the livelihood of about 1/10 of the world’s population. This particular species is considered the most dangerous of the locust pests because of the ability of swarms to fly rapidly across great distances.

Wednesday, August 15, 2012

12 Exotic Birds Endemic to The Philippines

The Philippines is home to some of the world’s most exotic birds. With more than 600 bird species to choose from including several species of hornbills, colorful fruit doves, rare parrots and fascinating eagles and owls — it's really fun to explore and learn more about these beautiful and unique birds. Here is a list of 12 exotic birds endemic to this “bird-paradise” country.

Each country has its own unique variety of birds native to its geographical location. The Philippines is home to some of the world’s most exotic birds, too. It is believed that 185 of these species can be found only in the Philippines. Sad to say, these birds are faced with the threat of eventual extinction, because of deforestation and human threat. Let me introduce you to some of the Philippines’ exotic birds:

The Handsome Sunbird

photo link

The Handsome Sunbird (Aethopyga bella) is found only in the Philippines. It is one of the smallest sunbirds in the Philippines. Handsome songbirds inhabit subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests and subtropical or tropical moist mountain habitat. They may be seen singly or in pairs frequenting flowering and fruiting trees. About 254 mm total length, they feed on nectar as well as small insects.

The Spotted Wood Kingfisher

photo link

The Spotted Wood Kingfisher (Actenoides lindsayi) is endemic to the Philippines widespread in Luzon, Panay, Negros, Marinduque and Catanduanes. It inhabits subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests, perches motionless in dark recesses. It measures around 254 mm long. The Spotted Wood Kingfisher is classified as Least Concern.

The Palawan Leafbird

photo link

The Yellow-throated Leafbird (Chloropsis palawanensis) is a small bird endemic to the Palawan and the Calamian Group in the Philippines. It commonly inhabits forest, forest edge, and scrub. With a distinctive green color, it measures to about 15.8 – 17.2 cm long. It has pointed slender bill, yellow throat, broad wings and long dull blue tail. Feeds on fruits and seeds. The Yellow-throated Leafbird is classified as Least Concern.

The Luzon Bleeding-heart

photo link

The Luzon Bleeding-heart (Gallicolumba luzonica) known for the splash of vivid red color at the heart of their white breasts, is a ground dove endemic to the central and southern parts of Luzon, and Polillo Islands, in the Philippines. This species is found in lowland forest (below 1,400 m). Generally slate grey in color, it measures about 25 cm long and weighs about 150-200 g. It has a round body, black bill, a short tail and long red legs. It feeds primarily on seeds, fallen berries, grubs, insects, and worms. The species is threatened by habitat loss, and rampant hunting. The Luzon Bleeding-heart is classified as Near Threatened.

The Yellow-breasted Fruit Dove

photo link

The Yellow-breasted Fruit Dove (Ptilinopus occipitalis), locally called Punay, is one of the five endemic fruit-doves endemic to the Philippines. This colorful dove is widespread over the country except the Palawan region. This species inhabit lowland and mid elevation forests and are seen singly or in pairs. Generally, Yellow-breasted Fruit-dove are frugivorous ( animals that eats mainly fruits). Adults reach 28-33cm in length and weigh about 204-278 g. The species is Not globally threatened.

The Philippine Cockatoo

photo link

The Red-vented Cockatoo (Cacatua haematuropygia), popularly known as the Philippine Cockatoo is a critically endangered bird native to the Philippines. Its natural habitat includes mangrove forests, lowlands, forest edges and riverine. The Katala as it is locally called, measures about 33 centimeters in length with an 8.6 inch wingspan and weighs 0.29 kilograms. It is easily recognized by its all-white plumage and by the red feathers around the vent. A highly-social species, they can be seen in groups of up to 30 or more. It feeds on the seeds and fruits of wild trees. The Red-vented Cockatoo is classified Critically Endangered due to habitat loss and rampant pouching

The Palawan Peacock-Pheasant

photo link

The Palawan Peacock-Pheasant (Polyplectron napoleonis), is a medium-sized bird found only in the humid forests of Palawan in southern Philippines. It inhabits primary and secondary forest. The species is known for the male’s distinctive high pointed crest, a white stripe over the eyes, and vibrant plumage (metallic-green head and long black tail). The tail feathers are marked with two sets of large and striking green-blue ocelli (peacock eyes). Adult males measure about 50 cm long. Females are smaller, and typically brown in color. An omnivore, it feeds on seeds, nuts, small fruits, insects and other invertebrates. The Palawan Peacock-Pheasant is classified by the IUCN as Vulnerable.

The Philippine Duck

photo link

The Philippine Duck (Anas luzonica) is the Philippines only endemic duck. It is found from all the major islands and eight smaller islands of the country. It is a large dabbling duck with almost grayish brown plumage. It has cinnamon head, black crown, bluish-gray bill and grayish brown legs. Adult males measure about 48-58 cm. tall. It inhabits all types of wetlands foraging for shrimps, fish, insects, as well as young vegetation. The Philippine duck is listed as Vulnerable because of over-hunting and habitat loss.

The Philippine Eagle

photo link

The Philippine Eagle (Pithecophaga jefferyi), considered the world’s largest eagle, is an endangered eagle endemic to forests in the Philippines. This imposing Raptor can be found on four major islands: eastern Luzon, Samar, Leyte and Mindanao. It inhabits in dipterocarp and mid-Montane forests at elevations of over 1,800 meters. It has brown and white-colored plumage, a distinctive shaggy crest, bluish bill, yellow feet, and dark brown tail with blackish bars and a white tip.

Locally called ‘haribon’, adult males generally measure 86 to 102 cm (2.82 to 3.35 ft) long with a wing span of 2 meters and weighs 4.7 to 8 kilograms (10 to 18 lbs). It feeds on monkeys, wild cats, large snakes, flying lemurs, and hornbills. Life expectancy is about 30 to 60 years. In 2010, the IUCN and BirdLife International listed this species as critically endangered.

The Philippine Falconet

photo link

The Philippine Falconet (Microhierax erythrogenys), the Philippines smallest Raptor, is found in most Philippine islands except Palawan. Its preferred habitat includes subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests. It is about 6 1/2 inches in length with black upperparts and white underparts. It has pointed wings, rounded tail, serrated beak and enormous claws. It feeds on lizards, insects, small invertebrates and even small birds.

Philippine Eagle-Owl

photo link

The Philippine Eagle-Owl (Bubo philippensis) is any of two species of bird belonging to the Strigidae family. Locally known as the “kuwago” or “bukao”, it is found in forest edges near streams on the islands of Bohol, Catanduanes, Leyte, Luzon, Mindanao, and Samar. The largest owl in the Philippines, it measures about 40–50 cm (16–20 in) and a wingspan of about 35 cm (14 in). The plumage is overall Rufous colored. It has dark brown wings and tail, small slanting ear tufts and yellow eyes.

Philippine Hornbill

photo link

The Rufous Hornbill (Buceros hydrocorax), also known as Philippine Hornbill, is the biggest of all Philippine Hornbills. Its population occurs in 11 islands: Biliran, Bohol, Buad, Calico-an, Dinagat, Leyte, Luzon, Marinduque, Mindanao, Samar, and Siargao. Locally known as ‘Kalaw‘, this species inhabit primary evergreen forests up to 2,100 m. It has a remarkable bright red-orange down-curved beak and casque (any sub-species include red and yellow). Plumage is black and brown with white tail. Adults can reach up to 30 inches long. It feeds on berries, fruits, insects as well as decaying flesh. This species is being listed by the IUCN / Birdlife International as ‘Critically Endangered’.